Seasonal variations in groundwater chemistry of a phreatic coastal and crystalline terrain of central Kerala, India

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dc.contributor.author Laluraj, C.M.
dc.contributor.author Gopinath, G.
dc.contributor.author DineshKumar, P.K.
dc.contributor.author Seralathan, P.
dc.date.accessioned 2008-02-12T04:35:57Z
dc.date.available 2008-02-12T04:35:57Z
dc.date.issued 2006
dc.identifier.citation Environmental Forensics, Vol. 7; 335-344p.
dc.identifier.uri http://drs.nio.org/drs/handle/2264/826
dc.description.abstract This article investigates the seasonal variation in geochemical characteristics of groundwater in phreatic aquifers of the coastal plain and crystalline terrain of central Kerala, India. Within the coastal plain, the western barrier island area shows values of electrical conductivity (EC, greater than 3 times), Na sup(+), K sup(+), Cl sup(-) (four times), Mg sup(2+) (10 times), Ca sup(2+) (two times), and HCO3 sup(-) + CO3 sup(2-) (approximately two times) higher than those of the eastern coastal plain during both seasons. In contrast, pH and SO sub(4) sup(2-) concentrations showed little variation. The alkaline nature and high EC of groundwater in the western barrier island-coastal plain is found to result from the intrusion of saltwater from the adjacent Vembanad estuary. In contrast, groundwater of the crystalline terrain is found to be slightly acidic with low EC. Within the crystalline terrain, the area east of Muvattupuzha River showed high EC values during both seasons while other parameters showed marginal variation. The trilinear diagram reveals that most of the groundwater samples from the crystalline terrain, which is of type IV (Ca sup(2+) -Mg sup(2+) -Cl sup(-) -SO sub(4) sup(2-)) during the premonsoon period, changed character to type II (Na sup(+) -K sup(+) -Ca sup(2+) -HCO3 sup(-)) during the postmonsoon period. This shift is possibly caused by the addition of Na sup(+) and HCO3 through the leaching of the country rock. Results for the western barrier island reveals that most of the samples are affected by the saline water incursion. Fecal contamination is found to be comparatively high in the groundwater of the coastal plain versus that of the crystalline terrain. This study indicates that the groundwater from the crystalline terrain is of higher quality than that of the coastal plain. The study further reveals the need for seasonal or multi-seasonal sampling when a geochemical characterization is performed and the recognition of physical events, such as heavy precipitation or droughts, when interpreting the geochemical characteristics of an aquifer
dc.language.iso en
dc.publisher Taylor and Francis
dc.rights Copyright [2006]. It is tried to respect the rights of the copyright holders to the best of the knowledge. If it is brought to our notice by copyright holder that the rights are voilated then the item would be withdrawn.
dc.subject seasonal variations
dc.subject groundwater
dc.subject coasts
dc.subject geochemistry
dc.title Seasonal variations in groundwater chemistry of a phreatic coastal and crystalline terrain of central Kerala, India
dc.type Journal Article


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