Antibacterial activity of the sponge Suberites domuncula and its primmorphs: Potential basis for epibacterial chemical defense
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The epibacterial chemical defense of the marine sponge Suberites domuncula was explored by screening sponge extract, sponge primmorph (3-D aggregates containing proliferating cells) extract and sponge-associated as well as primmorph-associated bacteria for antibacterial activity. 16S rDNA sequencing revealed that the antimicrobially active bacteria belonged to the alpha- and gamma-subdivisions of Proteobacteria (alpha-Proteobacterium MBIC 3368, Idiomarina sp. and Pseudomonas sp., respectively). Moreover, a recombinant perforin-like protein was cloned from S. domuncula that displayed strong antibacterial activity. Based on these observations, it is proposed that the sponge may be provided with a direct (by producing antibacterial metabolites) as well as an indirect (with the help of associated bacteria) epibacterial defense.
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