Estimation of wind speed and wave height during cyclones
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Wave and wind characteristics based on the cyclones, in the vicinity of the Nagapattinam coastline (east coast of India) were estimated. In all, 11 cyclones have crossed near the study region during 1960-1996. For the four severe cyclones, the isobaric charts were collected at three hourly intervals from the India Meteorological Department. The storm variables such as central pressure, radius of maximum wind, speed of forward motion and direction of storm movement were extracted and the method based on standard Hydromet pressure profile, were used for the hindcast of storm wind fields. For all the cyclones the maximum significant wave height within the storm and its associated spectral peak period was estimated using the Young's model considering the moving wind field and the results are compared with the hurricane wave prediction techniques provided in the shore protection manual published by the US Army Corps of Engineers in 1984. The study shows that the estimated wind speed and the data reported by ships were comparable. Empirical expressions relating wind speed, wave height and wave period to storm parameters were derived. The design wave height for different return periods was obtained by fitting a two-parameter Weibull distribution to the estimated significant wave heights. The design wave height was 9.39 m for 1 in 100 year return period for a direct hit of cyclone.
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