Marine archaeological explorations off Goa, India
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The Marine archaeology centre of the National Institute of Oceanography (NIO), Goa, India has undertaken marine archaeological explorations in Goa waters to locate shipwrecks and port installations in coastal areas, and riverbanks. The exploration at Sunchi Reef has revealed the remains of a shipwreck in 3 to 6 m water depths. The findings include four cannons, a cast iron cannon ball, pottery, pieces of glass bottle, broken iron rudder, and a number of dressed granite blocks. The underwater exploration at St. George's Reef revealed the remains of a shipwreck in 15 m water depth containing various types of terracotta artefacts such as bricks, pillar bases and segments, roofing, and flooring tiles at times inscribed 'Basel Mission Tile Works 1865 and a number of other household decorative materials. A 2 m long timber of the ship is also noticed in the same area. The underwater metal detector survey followed by diving in Baga waters revealed a steel-hulled wreck in 5 to 6 m water depth. Earlier survey in the adjoining area had revealed a stone artefact, which is similar to pyramidal anchor stone. Similarly, diving and metal detector surveys were carried out opposite to the Captain of Port's jetty in the River Mandovi at Old Goa. The airlift revealed Chinese and Celadon ware along with local pottery at 3 to 9 m water depth. The paper deals with the methodology adopted during the exploration and the state of the findings, their date and probable causes of wreck have been described.
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