Butyltin compounds in biofilm and marine organisms from the Dona Paula Bay, west coast of India
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Biofilm, fish, oyster, mussel, and clams were collected from the Dona Paula Bay, west coast of India. These samples were analysed for butyltin derivatives. In the Dona Paula Bay, total butyltins varied from 21 to 89 ng/l (nanograms per litre) in surface sea water and from 10 to 822 ng/g (nanograms per gram) in biofilm samples. In the animal samples, total butyltins ranged between 58 and 825 ng/g dry wt (weight) of the tissue. Mussel tissues contained the highest amount of total butyltins (825 ng/g dry wt tissue), whereas highest TBT (tributyltin) concentration was recorded in the oyster (732 ng/g dry wt). Higher butyltin levels relative to those in the surrounding sea water were observed in biofilm. When fed on TBT-contaminated biofilm of the diatom Navicvla subinflata, butyltin concentrations in the clam Paphia mahbarica increased over the period of feeding, suggesting the importance of biofilm in the transfer of butyltins to the higher group of organisms. TBT was generally the most abundant butyltin compound in most of the samples, suggesting fresh inputs of butyltin compounds and/or less degradation of TBT. A wide range of the observed total butyltin concentrations suggests the presence of localized areas of contamination. Leaching of TBT-containing antifouling paints from the ocean-going ships, fishing and recreational boats, barges, and the inputs of TBT from the Goa shipyard and dry dock facility situated in the adjacent harbour are the probable sources of butyltin in the samples of the Dona Paula Bay.
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