Climate induced changes in beach morphology and sediment dynamics, Machilipatnam
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The wave climate, littoral current patterns, monthly and seasonal longshore drift rates, beach profile changes, and sediment budget of the beach sediments were determined along Machilipatnam, Andhra Pradesh (India) for the NE, SW monsoons, and for transition period. Low waves become moderate - high and moderate during the SW and the NE monsoons respectively. The occurrence of cyclone/storm during the NE monsoon is high, and there are sporadic enhancements in the winds and waves during such events. The littoral currents were moderate to strong during the SW monsoon, variable during the NE monsoon, and weak during non-monsoon period. The direction of these currents also varies during the SW and NE monsoons. Beach eroded during SW monsoon, but despite the prevalent moderate-high wave regime, and moderate-strong littoral currents, the beach profiles of the NE monsoon had accretion over the profiles of the SW monsoon. Based upon the variations in the longshore sediment transport, wave energy flux, magnitude and direction of littoral current, sedimentological parameters of the beach and location of the area in the vicinity of high fluvial discharge, the factors which contribute to the beach sediment dynamics under the SW and NE monsoons and transition period are delineated.
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