Kyoto protocol and the deep seabed regime of UNCLOS III
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The 2 December 2003 refusal by Russia to ratify the 1997 Kyoto Protocol and a similar stand adopted by the U.S since March 2001 compares with the non-ratification of UNCLOS III (Third United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea) by the U.S. and other industrialised countries in protest against its provisions on the deep seabed regime. The multilateral treaties like UNCLOS and Kyoto Protocol are consensus - driven agreements to address the current- and future concerns, and adopt a regulatory framework for improvements in their respective jurisdiction. While the European Union and Japan are backing Kyoto Protocol, the UNCLOS suffered for lack of support from the industrialised countries until the implementation agreement of 1994 intervened to restore the confidence of these countries in the deep seabed mining component of the treaty. The UNCLOS has since come into being from 16 November 1994. India has ratified UNCLOS on 29 June 1995. The Kyoto Protocol, an environment agreement, requires industrialised countries to scale back emissions of carbon dioxide and other green house gases by an average of five per cent from their 1990 levels by 2012. The Kyoto Protocol, like UNCLOS, must find acceptance with major polluters and thus provide a cleaner environment and motivation for others to follow beyond 2012.
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