Simulation of coastal winds along the central west coast of India using the MM5 mesoscale model
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A high-resolution mesoscale numerical model (MM5) has been used to study the coastal atmospheric circulation of the central west coast of India, and Goa in particular. The model is employed with three nested domains. The innermost domain of 3 km mesh covers Goa and the surrounding region. Simulations have been carried out for three different seasons- northeast (NE) monsoon, transition period and southwest (SW) monsoon with appropriate physics options to understand the coastal wind system. The simulated wind speed and direction match well with the observations. The model winds show the presence of a sea breeze during the NE monsoon season and transition period, and its absence during the SW monsoon season. In the winter period, the synoptic flow is northeasterly (offshore) and it weakens the sea breeze (onshore flow) resulting in less diurnal variation, while during the transition period, the synoptic flow is onshore and it intensifies the sea breeze. During the northeast monsoon at an altitude of above 750 m, the wind direction reverses, and this is the upper return current, indicating the vertical extent of the sea breeze. A well-developed land sea breeze circulation occurs during the transition period, with vertical extension of 300 and 1,100 m, respectively.
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