ENSO signature in the sea level along the coastline of Indian subcontinent
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Evidence for the signature of El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon in the monthly mean sea level at 8 tide gauge stations on the west coast and 7 stations on the east coast of the Indian subcontinent is presented. The Southern Oscillation Index (SOI, indicator of the ENSO phenomenon) available continuously from 1933 onwards, was utilized to examine the relationship between sea level and ENSO. The relationship between sea level and SOI is direct, with the sea level decreasing during El Nino years and increasing during La Nina years. The signature of ENSO is particularly conspicuous in the sea level records on the east coast as compared to those on the west coast. Reduced rainfall over the Indian subcontinent and resultant river discharges, remote forcing by interannual zonal winds along the equator and reduced Indonesian Throughflow could be the probable factors explaining the low sea level along the coastline of the Indian subcontinent during ENSO events. The interannual sea level along the coastline of the Indian subcontinent shows more or less synchronous movement-the rise and fall is nearly simultaneous. At low frequency, spatial coherence of sea level is very large.
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