The origin of ferro-manganese oxide coated pumice from the Central Indian Ocean Basin
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Pumice clasts, partially and fully coated with ferro-manganese oxide from the Central Indian Ocean Basin (CIOB) were analysed for major, trace and rare earth elements; and glass and mineral grain chemistry to assess their possible source. These pumice clasts have approx95% glassy matrix with approx5% of plagioclase, ortho-pyroxene, amphibole, and spinel mineral grains. Pumice is rhyolitic, with high content of silica and total alkalis and show strong light rare earth element enrichment, with La approx100 times enriched compared to chondritic abundance and exhibits a pronounced negative Eu-anomaly. Both the partially and fully coated pumice clasts have a similar composition, but this, and their, glass and mineral (orthopyroxene) chemistry differs from all tuffs known to have erupted from the Toba Caldera Complex. The partial to complete Fe–Mn oxide coating suggests the pumice probably predates activity from the Toba caldera. Their general composition is consistent with a volcanic arc origin, and show similarities to rhyolitic eruptives from Sumatra. The distribution of partially and fully coated pumice in the CIOB overlaps with that of uncoated pumice from the voluminous YTT eruption, suggesting that other large rhyolitic calderas active in Sumatra/Indonesia. Similarities in composition to ash layers from the CIOB suggest a possible Late Miocene – Late Pleistocene age for these pumices.
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