Indian summer monsoon rainfall characteristics during contrasting monsoon years.
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The present paper presents a diagnostic study of two recent monsoon years, of which one is dry monsoon year (2009) and the other is wet monsoon year (2010). The study utilized the IMD gridded rainfall data set in addition to the Reynolds SST, NCEP-NCAR reanalysis wind and temperature products, and NOAA OLR. The study revealed that the months July and August are the most crucial months to decide whether the ISMR is wet or dry. However, during July 2009, most of the Indian subcontinent received more than 60 % in the central and western coastal regions. In a wet monsoon year, about 35–45 % of rainfall is contributed during June and July in most parts of India. During these years, the influence of features in the Pacific Ocean played vital role on the Indian summer monsoon rainfall. During 2009, Pacific SST was above normal in nino regions, characteristic of the El Nino structure; however, during 2010, the nino regions were clearly below normal temperature, indicating the La Nina pattern. The associated atmospheric general circulation through equatorial Walker and regional Hadley circulation modulates the tropospheric temperature, and hence the organized convective cloud bands. These cloud bands show different characteristics in northward propagation during dry and wet years of ISMR. During a dry year, the propagation speed and magnitudes are considerably higher than during a wet monsoon year.
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