Modeling and inversion of PS-wave moveout asymmetry for tilted TI media: Part 2: Dipping TTI layer
MetadataShow full item record
Dipping transversely isotropic layers with a tilted symmetry axis (TTI media) cause serious imaging problems in fold-and-thrust belts and near salt domes. The modified PP + PS = SS method introduced in Part 1 is applied to the inversion of longoffset PP and PS reflection data for the parameters of a TTI layer with the symmetry axis orthogonal to the bedding. The inversion algorithm combines the time- and offset-asymmetry attributes of the PSV-wave with the hyperbolic PP- and SS-wave moveout in the symmetry-axis plane (i.e., the vertical plane that contains the symmetry axis). The weak-anisotropy approximations for the moveout-asymmetry attributes, verified by numerical analysis, indicate that small-offset (leading) terms do not contain independent information for the inversion. Therefore, the parameter-estimation algorithm relies on PS data recorded at large offsets (the offset-to-depth ratio has to reach at least two), which makes the results generally less stable than those for a horizontal TTI layer in Part1. The least-resolved parameter is Thomsen’s coefficient epsilon that does not directly influence the moveout of either pure or converted modes. Still, the contribution of the PS-wave asymmetry attributes helps to constrain the TTI model for large tilts v of the symmetry axis (v is greater than 40 degrees). The accuracy of the inversion for large tilts can be improved further by using wide-azimuth PP and PS reflections. With high-quality PS data, the inversion remains feasible for moderate tilts (25 degrees is less than v is less than 40 degrees), but it breaks down for models with smaller values of v in which the moveout asymmetry is too weak. The tilt itself and several combinations of the medium parameters (e.g., the ratio of the P- and S-wave velocities in the symmetry direction), however, are well constrained for all symmetry-axis orientations. The results of Parts 1 and 2 show that 2D measurements of the PS-wave asymmetry attributes can be used effectively in anisotropic velocity analysis for TTI media. In addition to providing an improved velocity model for imaging beneath TTI beds, our algorithms yield information for lithology discrimination and structural interpretation.
- Scholarly literature