Application of remote sensing and GIS for the demarcation of groundwater potential zones of a river basin in Kerala, southwest coast of India
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An integrated hydrogeological investigation has been made to delineate the groundwater-potential zones of the Muvattupuzha river basin, Kerala, along the southwest coast of India. The basin is characterized by charnockites and gneisses of Archean age covering more than 80% of the area and the remaining by Pleistocene laterites and Miocene formation. The basin receives high rainfall, measuring 3100 mm/year. However, acute water shortage occurs during the premonsoon season and hence, a number of dug wells are made to tap the groundwater. Seasonal rainfall during NE and SW monsoons is the major source of groundwater recharge. Further, hydrogeomorphology, geology, fracture systems and the slope of the terrain also play a significant role on the movement and behaviour of the groundwater of this basin. The integration of conventional and remote sensing data has been made through geographic information system (GIS) and it is found that about 50% of the area can be identified as very good or good potential zones, whereas the remaining area falls under moderate and poor categories. Most of the Muvattupuzha sub-basin and the western part of the Kothamangalam and Kaliyar sub-basins are classified as good groundwaterpotential zones, although the eastern upstream part of the basin has poor groundwater potential.
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