Antioxidant responses in gills and digestive gland of oyster Crassostrea madrasensis (Preston) under lead exposure
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Crassostrea are ecologically and economically important bivalves and provide a good livelihood for coastal regions of many countries, including India. This study aims at evaluating the response of the antioxidant defense system in oyster Crassostrea madrasensis against lead (Pb) exposure under laboratory conditions. Antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione-s-transferase (GST) and oxidative damage parameter lipid peroxidation (LPO) were measured in the gills and digestive glands of oysters exposed to 1-50 �g/l of Pb (NO<sub>3</sub>)<sub>2</sub> over a period of 8 days. LPO index increased progressively with increase in Pb concentration (1, 10, 25 and 50 �g/l) in both tissues, gills and digestive gland. Although CAT and SOD activities induced together in the initial phase (upto 6th day), their activities decreased at a later stage of the experiment. However, GST activity increased on 8th day in both the tissues at concentration 10, 25 and 50 �g/l indicates the compensatory defense mechanism against oxidative stress. The induced antioxidant responses recorded at 25 and 50 �g/l of Pb concentrations suggest the presence of Pb-induced oxidative stress at these concentrations. The results of this work also indicate that LPO, SOD, and GST could be used as biomarkers to assess the impact of Pb on the C. madrasensis. This study concludes that any high level of dissolved Pb concentration (>10 �g/l) in surrounding seawater could be harmful to the physiology of the C. madrasensis.
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