Advances in photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy
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Photodynamic therapy (PDT) and photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) combine light and photosensitizers to treat cancers and microbial infections, respectively. In PACT, the excitation of a photosensitizer drug with appropriate light generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) that kill pathogens in the proximity of the drug. PACT has considerably advanced with new light sources, biocompatible photosensitizers, bioconjugate methods, and efficient ROS production. The PACT technology has evolved to compete with or replace antibiotics, reducing the burden of antibiotic resistance. This review updates recent advances in PACT, with special references to light sources, photosensitizers, and emerging applications to microbial infestations. We also discuss PACT applied to COVID-19 causing SARS-CoV-2 treatment and disinfecting food materials and water. Finally, we discuss the pathogen selectivity and efficiency of PACT.
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